The programming language which has been used for almost every application one can imagine. Simple to learn, simple to use. Those are the first noticeable traits of Java which makes it simple to write, test, compile, debug and implement as compared to other programming languages. Moreover, Java is platform-independent making it incredibly flexible and the fact that Java is object-oriented allows programmers to create diverse applications and reusable code. Java has been around for a long time and despite the advancements in recent years, is evolving by the second and here to stay.
Considered as the most rapidly evolving programming language in the world today, Python is being used in high-profile spheres right from creating applications for the NYSE to helping run websites for magazines and newspapers as well as for applications involved in monitoring air traffic control. Powered by its technicallypristine object-oriented framework with massive support libraries, Python is considered to be an amazing scripting language which is ideal for customizing large applications. Python is also an open-source language known for its crisp syntax, portability and scalability making it essential in the industry today. Programmers skilled in Python are heavily sought-after by top-tier companies across the world.
Microsoft's .NET framework packs many types of programming languages, be it dynamic languages such as IronPython and IronRuby or static languages like C#, VB.NET, C++ or even functional programming languages like F#. The framework is also known to be easy when it comes to deploying and maintaining applications with a consistent programming structure as well as a seamless support system for security. Companies, believing in the importance of the aforementioned profitable features constantly seek .NET professionals in the industry, to this day.
Ruby on Rails
An open-source framework that has evolved into a major player when it comes to creating numerous web applications and websites. RoR driven by ObjectOriented Programming, is known to be swift as you can code prototypes and deploy them instantly. The fact that it's open-source makes it absolutely free for building quirky, well-designed web applications. Moreover, the easy deployment feature helps you move into the development stage almost instantly saving an unbelievable amount of time which, in the today's industry, is money. The clincher, perhaps, is the chance to create "development code-tracks" for your own plug-and-play apps enabling you to use the same code structures for your future app projects which you used for those plug-and-play apps. Given that sites like Twitter, Groupon etc. use RoR, it's no surprise that companies targeting a niche audience will seek professionals trained on RoR's platforms.